Nd:YAG Lasers, Laser Systems in LIBS and PIV Research
September 14, 2022
Research conducted by our customers contributes to the advancement of laser physics, industrial, aerospace, medical, lidar, and other exciting industries. We’re proud to provide the pulse generators, Nd:YAG lasers, and laser systems to dedicated scientists and researchers who test hypotheses and push the boundaries of what’s possible.
PIV Measurements in Cavitation
In these cavitation studies, researchers use particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis to expand the capabilities of hydraulic machinery and fuel and energy equipment.
Typical photography measurement systems cannot capture nanoseconds interval time. Framing and streak cameras pose a great expense to researchers who are often working from an already tight budget. This study helped develop a photography system, using a PIV dual-head laser and a conventional industrial camera.
Nucleation, the centers, or assembled molecules responsible for the evolution of cavitation are often caused by gaseous pockets. This research shows the ability of gas supersaturation - dissolved gases in water that exceed the concentration of gases that can be dissolved under normal circumstances - in creating a cavitation nucleus. Findings also suggest that “[local gas supersaturation] connects the phase transitions of cavitation and boiling.”
Hydraulic machinery degrades from cavitation over time. Manufacturers seek to find solutions to this problem to add longevity to their products. The researchers in this experiment investigated the impact of the conical angle on the amount of cavitation. They found that the larger the conical angle, the faster the bubbles collapse. Additionally, they observed a stronger jet and pressure pulse of bubbles in tubes compared to a bubble near an infinite plate.
Radioactive Materials and Calibration-Free LIBS
Working with radioactive materials can cause serious health effects, especially from a strong source over a prolonged period. Scientists have been trying to find ways to study these materials without causing any harm. The exploration of calibration-free (CF) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is a promising solution and can benefit applications, such as nuclear reactor research.
Fundamental properties, specifically for radioactive materials, have been hard to study. This research used LIBS techniques in conjunction with Saha-Boltzmann methods to estimate the transition probabilities of Neptunium. It also established a setup that can be applied to other radioactive element studies.
Like the previous experiment, the researchers used LIBS and the Saha-Boltzmann plots to determine the transition probabilities of radioactive materials. The data collected estimated the transition probabilities of Eu, Eu I, and EU II. Using calibration-free LIBS promotes this approach across the industry, improving safety when dealing with radioactive substances.
LIBS and Environmental Impact
Double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy helps us understand the concentration of toxins and harmful chemicals in our water systems, soil, and food sources. Double pulse LIBS instruments provide accurate readings in these dense environmental samples.
In this study, Cr, Cu, and Ni concentrations lower than the Threshold Effect Level were found in sediment samples, displaying the ability of double pulse LIBS to analyze trace elements in dense samples. Researchers found using inverse regression improved the accuracy of the concentration.
Direct Determination of Nutrient Elements in Plant Leaves by Double Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Evaluation of Calibration Strategies Using Direct and Inverse Models for Matrix-Matching
Double pulse LIBS proves to be effective in analyzing the concentrations of substances, but further studies wanted to prove the most accurate calibration strategy. Through the evaluation of both direct and inverse calibration methods, researchers found that the inverse model performed better. Both methods are sufficient in providing satisfactory results.
Researchers rely on our standard and custom lab instruments and laser systems for precision, stability, and timing and synchronization. Browse our product families and contact our experts for a demonstration.